Kot­te­lat & Ng 2005

First descrip­tion:Diag­noses of six new species of Parosphromenus (Teleostei: Osphrone­mi­dae) from Malay Penin­sula and Bor­neo, with notes on other species. The Raf­fles Bul­letin of Zool­ogy 2005 Sup­ple­ment No. 13: 101113.

Char­ac­ter­is­tics: one of the largest and strongest p. species, belong­ing to those with long dor­sal fin (species name): Dor­sal: XIII-​XV, 67, total 1517, anal fin: XIII, 910, total 2223. Total body length often 5,00 cm. Stronger, less del­i­cate, some­times some­what com­pact appear­ing body physique com­pared to many other species. Also the colour­ing is dif­fer­ent from the rest of the species. The male has strik­ing mul­ti­coloured banded unpaired fins with a sequence (from out­side to inside) of par­al­lel nar­row white, broader almost black, light blue, broad red-​brown and (some­times near the body) white bands.

In the par­tic­u­larly strik­ing cau­dal fin the black area forms an irreg­u­lar, resolved spot on the edge. There­fore these fish have a very colour­ful appear­ance. Also the dark bands, which are typ­i­cal for licorice gouramy, con­tribute to this pic­ture, because in this species they are often green­ish and even inter­rupted. These fea­tures give the fish a stain-​like body image. Con­trary to the other species of the genus, the male has a par­tic­u­lar colour pat­tern in the unpaired fins that is grey show­ing many white, but in fact trans­par­ent, small stains. G. Kopic points at the fact that dom­i­nant females can some­times be almost as colour­ful as the males. The black stripes in the unpaired fins are usu­ally sig­nif­i­cant in the females, too.

Sim­i­lar species: due to the dif­fer­ent coloura­tion and com­pact body shape com­pared to other species, the risk of con­fu­sion is low. The struc­ture of the fins and the coloura­tion of the tail fin should be suf­fi­cient for diag­no­sis in both sexes even for not fully grown up fish.

Occur­rence /​Dis­tri­b­u­tion: Bor­neo, south­east­ern Kali­man­tan Barat in the basin of Sun­gai Pawang and Sun­gai Liong, north of Nanga Tayap (terra typ­ica). The name spec. Man­is­mata (or Manis-​Mata), orig­i­nally used in Euro­pean trade, refers to a set­tle­ment fur­ther north, although it is unclear if the fish is found there.

Threat: as the rain for­est and wet­lands destruc­tion is not a locally or tem­porar­ily lim­ited event and the over­all dis­tri­b­u­tion of the species is still unknown (up to now only few local­i­ties are con­firmed), the fish has to be regarded as highly endan­gered. Addi­tion­ally it has to be con­sid­ered that most of the fish in hob­by­ists tanks go back to only a few ini­tial imports.

Discovery/​First import: P. quincedim was found by H. Kishi (“Team Bor­neo”) in 2001 near Nanga Tayap. It was first intro­duced to Japan and later on in the same year in Ger­many and other coun­tries by the com­pany Glaser. Here it was traded as spec. Manis-​Mata. This species is one of the few that were first intro­duced in Europe by the trade.

Trade: the species was in trade only rarely after 2001, no longer as far as we know after 2006. Most of the remain­ing aquar­ium stock goes back to the first import and to pri­vate imports of few parosphromenus spe­cial­ists. Often the old name spec. Man­is­mata still occurs, which draws off the atten­tion from the real area of distribution.

Care /​Breed­ing: not dif­fer­ent from the other species. Although the species appears to be tough and in fact some­times with­stands a cer­tain dete­ri­o­ra­tion of its envi­ron­ment, atten­tion should be paid to the main­tainance of low con­duc­tiv­ity and acidic pH, oth­er­wise the beau­ti­ful colours will not be vis­i­ble for long and breed­ing will not be suc­cess­ful. Apart from this, breed­ing this species can some­times be easy in a tank that is suf­fi­ciently large and has some hid­ing places for the females. The robust­ness of the fish does not allow the use of small-​size tanks (<20L), which are well suited for many other species. They can pro­duce rel­a­tively large clutches (up to more then 100 eggs).

Behav­iour /​Par­tic­u­lar­i­ties:the fish shows hor­i­zon­tally courtship and was almost some­thing like a “fash­ion” fish due to its strik­ing coloura­tion. Dur­ing the first years after its intro­duc­tion it was bred by some spe­cial­ists in rel­a­tively large num­bers. Mean­while only a small remain­ing stock is available.



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